Global Radiation Magneto-hydrodynamic Simulations of Sub-Eddington Accretion Disks around Supermassive Black Holes
Jiang, Yan-Fei; Blaes, Omer; Stone, James; Davis, Shane W.
We use global three dimensional radiation magneto-hydrodynamic simulations to study the properties of inner regions of accretion disks around a 5\times 10^8 solar mass black hole with mass accretion rates reaching 7% and 20% of the Eddington value. This region of the disk is supported by magnetic pressure with surface density significantly smaller than the values predicted by the standard thin disk model but with a much larger disk scale height. The disks do not show any sign of thermal instability over many thermal time scales. More than half of the accretion is driven by radiation viscosity in the optically thin corona region for the lower accretion rate case, while accretion in the optically thick part of the disk is driven by the Maxwell and Reynolds stresses from MRI turbulence. Coronae with gas temperatures > 10^8 K are generated only in the inner \approx 10 gravitational radii in both simulations, being more compact in the higher accretion rate case. In contrast to the thin disk model, surface density increases with increasing mass accretion rate, which causes less dissipation in the optically thin region and a relatively weaker corona. The simulation results may explain the formation of X-ray coronae in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs), the compact size of such coronae, and the observed trend of optical to X-ray luminosity with Eddington ratio for many AGNs.